The knowledge you need to demand from an expert. We must avoid the excesses of certain authors who, by describing in detail the knowledge specific to a physician designated for reports, have ended up demanding the universality of science and demanding things impossible everywhere. But to avoid exaggerations, it is always obvious that among the different areas of medicine where the practice requires the most diverse talents and knowledge, forensic medicine is the most demanding. The extreme variety of objects that need to be reported requires the need to join a mass of knowledge that can only be acquired through experience with the help of geniuses. The Romans were more precise and their laws better founded; Caesarean section was recommended after the death of the pregnant woman, and examination of injured carcasses was publicly authorized to facilitate the detection of crimes, they have authentic witnesses of the influence of medicine on their legislation (see Plutarch, Suetonius, Tacitus). Nevertheless, all were limited to the application of vague knowledge in rare cases or in those that are rarely required; not only at the time of the publication of the sentence of Emperor Charles V was there a feeling of need for forensic medicine in the form of a doctrine (Boerner, Kannegiefer). The canons, the decrees often required the reports of the doctors and their ministers, which led the jurists to feel their necessity and use, tradition had made them imperceptible, and the decisions of the kings were published to us by posterity, by Charles V, who established this custom in law. There are a number of important ways to fill this gap through training and exposure to emergency clinical forensics. Forensic examinations must be conducted with the consent of the patient, guardian or court, or with implied consent. The assessment should include medical history and physical examination, documenting all wounds and describing them in as much detail as possible, as well as photographs and anatomical diagrams.1 Even simple findings such as bruising or associated bruising can provide important clues as to how the injury was sustained5 and be invaluable for future legal proceedings.

Assessments of gunshot and stab wounds, physical or sexual abuse, domestic violence and motor vehicle trauma should also be adequately documented so that they can be used as evidence. Documentation should include digital photographs as well as a narrative and diagrams. Emergency medical programs have identified and described the need for forensic training in their programs. The American College of Emergency Physicians established the Division of Forensic Pathology in 2006 to provide emergency clinicians with additional forensic resources and training. Unfortunately, there is currently no formal training program. In contrast, the Royal College of Physicians in the United Kingdom established the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) in 2006 as the authoritative body for clinical forensic pathology in the United Kingdom. The FFLM has created training and certification programmes and type certification examinations for UK doctors after 2 years of forensic practice.4 The plan for a forensic treatise. A treatise on forensic medicine, which contains in detail all the cases in which the opinion of doctors becomes or seems useful, is undoubtedly a respectable work: we have several of this kind, the merit of which is known and which are consulted occasionally: but if it is gladly found in these works, which enlighten the spirit of research, It can also be seen in the unfortunate credulity that ignorance and superstition have produced in previous centuries. The habit of dogmatizing, defining, explaining, being contagious; They only wanted it through words, and neglected experience seemed subordinated to the art of constructing theories.

It is embarrassing to admit the impossibility of knowing how nature relates its processes, not to see clearly the link between effects and causes. The human mind could never handle such advances, and nothing could stop it, and imagination takes the place of logic. We have learned to doubt certain knowledge more, and this useful revolution has produced positive ideas that were unknown; and dispelled the lies that time had consecrated. These accusations of royal doctors and surgeons to appoint the first physician and surgeon of the king, in places where there is no medical school or college of surgery, and one feels that if it is absolutely necessary, it is only the reputation and experience of the subject that decides the choice. In places where there is a faculty or college, the responsibility of the royal physician or sworn surgeon is transferred to the committee itself, which appoints those of its members who must meet all the requirements of the judge, and one can only hide the tasks that are not difficult to assign to the younger or less experienced. There are many characteristics common to those of physicians and surgeons that do not allow them to produce a report that (according to the author of the jurisprudence of medicine in France) «all the times when such qualities may be suspected in a physician or surgeon, the reasons for the division or favor of those for or against them, who reported could be a legitimate reason for the challenge, as could doctors or surgeons who would be both advocates or pimps. A decree of the Parliament of Provence of 23. May 1677 states that «the legal pimp was a surgeon who, in that capacity as surgeon, could prepare a report on injuries connected with the causes he had accused.» A similar decree of the Parliament of January 11, 1687, which allowed the replacement of the fiscal pimp and the pimp plaintiff, was surgeon to exercise the function of surgeon ` with the accusation that they were able to submit to the court any report for those from whom it was or had been obtained, were in criminal proceedings or the said reports were provided. are engaged in other civil or criminal proceedings. Chain of custody, also known as chain of evidence, refers to the detailed documentation of the evidence trail from collection to delivery during a court proceeding. In order to respect the chain of custody, the kit must be recorded at all times without error, and all transfers must be documented, including the police officer who assumes responsibility for the kit.

If the police are not available to retrieve the kit at that time, it must be locked in a secure area reserved for such cases so that the data does not become invalid. If there are gaps in the chain of custody, the evidence may not be admissible in court. Emergency departments are advised to develop protocols for these meetings. The art of making relationships or relationships in the judicial system is only one part of forensic medicine, and those who are narrow-minded in it may be accused of having replaced an extensive and transcendent science by its nature and purpose, the technical practice of only one of the fields. Medical reports are defined: «a public and authentic act by which physicians and their designated ministers testify or report in a written document signed by themselves all that their art and light have made known to them by the study and study of a subject presented to them, for the purpose of enlightening the judges, to create justice itself.» Gottieb. Henrici Kannegiesseri, Institute. Medicinae legalis. 8` Hall of Magdeburg. The Division of Medicine Proper in Medicine, Surgery and Pharmacy has established three types of artists whose work is different; But the physicians whose domain is the knowledge of nature, the prognosis and cure of all diseases, the character and virtue of all decent abilities with the auxiliary sciences, who have been able to conduct those contained in the art of healing, their ministry extends to all reports relating to nature and which are the subject thereof.

Other professions must recognize in their reports the limits imposed on them in their practice and it is necessary to measure the degree of confidence attached to their decision by the experience acquired by each expert in the profession he practises. { See below}. For these reasons, it is helped to feel how absurd it is to claim with the author of » The Art of Making Reports in Surgery » that the subject and work of all kinds of reports is a right of inheritance that belonged to the surgeons to the doctors themselves: the creation of royal doctors in different places of kingdoms was the purpose of remedying the abuse in the destruction of this claim. And wherever there has been no similar creation, the judge has the right to appoint those who call for light and experience for him the most decent to fulfill the duties of the law. The organization has built a pan-African network of forensic pathologists who are building a platform to improve forensic services in Africa. In 2012, the ASFM established a governance and management structure in Kampala, Uganda, to formalize the organization. These different themes seem to me to represent a natural division into three classes; The first contains questions of criminal law, the second that of citizenship and the third that of political or economic law.