Modern countries where monarchs retain absolute power are: A constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a country is ruled by a monarch whose power is limited by a constitution. In other words, the monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of the constitution (a written or unwritten constitution). Therefore, the monarch is a purely ceremonial ruler or de facto head of state. Moreover, constitutional monarchy is the opposite of absolute monarchy. In an absolute monarchy, ordinary people are deprived of natural rights and enjoy few limited privileges granted by the monarch. The practice or abstinence of a religion not supported by the monarch is treated as a serious crime. The people have no say in the government or leadership of the country. All laws are enacted by monarchs and usually serve only their interests. Any complaint or protest against the monarch is considered treason and is punishable by torture and death. Although this statement is highly controversial, Louis XIV de France (1638-1715) is said to have often proclaimed L`État, c`est moi!, «Je suis l`État!» Although he was often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he long ruled the France, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch.[15] More recently, revisionist historians have questioned whether Ludwig`s reign should be considered «absolute» given the reality of the balance of power between the monarch and the nobility, as well as the parliaments. [16] [citation needed for verification] One theory is that he built the opulent Palace of Versailles and preferred only the nobles who lived nearby to gather the nobility in Paris and concentrate power as a centralized government. This policy also had the effect of separating the nobles from their feudal armies.

Absolute monarchy[1][2] (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch is the only one to decide and therefore governs alone. In this type of monarchy, the king is usually limited by a constitution. In some of these monarchies, however, the king is by no means limited and has absolute power. [3] They are often hereditary monarchies. On the other hand, in constitutional monarchies, where the authority of the head of state, which is also bound or limited by the constitution, a legislator or unwritten customs, it is not the king who is the only one to decide, but also his entourage, mainly the prime minister. [3] The main characteristics of an absolute monarchy are hereditary dominions and the divine right of kings. A monarch becomes a ruler throughout the family. That is, he or she receives this position because they were born into the royal family as a royal heir.

In addition, the divine right of kings refers to the medieval European belief that kings derived their power from God. This belief further strengthened the monarch as it ensured that people had no control over the monarch`s reign. A constitutional monarchy is a political system in which a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government. Monarchs in constitutional monarchies function as symbolic heads of state while relinquishing most political power. Countries ruled by constitutional monarchies today include the United Kingdom, Belgium, Norway, Japan and Thailand. In an absolute monarchy, the monarch has unlimited power and authority, while in a constitutional monarchy, the monarch shares power with parliament or another legislative body. 1. «4170376» (CC0) via Pixabay2.

«Form of constitutional monarchy of government» By The_Tom – own work, from Wikimedia`s existing world map, simplified version of Image:Form of government.png (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia In an absolute monarchy, as in a dictatorship, the power in power and the actions of the absolute monarch cannot be questioned or restricted by a written law, legislation, court, economic sanction, religion, custom or electoral process. Perhaps the best description of the governmental power exercised by an absolute monarch is often attributed to King Louis XIV of France, the «Sun King,» who is said to have declared, «I am the state.» Absolute monarchies include Brunei, Eswatini, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City and the individual emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, which is itself a federation of these monarchies – a federal monarchy. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] In making this bold statement, Louis XIV drew inspiration from the ancient theory of monarchical absolutism known as the «divine right of kings,» asserting that the authority of kings was conferred on them by God. In this way, the king did not respond to his subjects, the aristocracy or the church. Historically, tyrannical absolute monarchs claimed that by performing the brutal acts, they simply administered the punishment ordained by God for the «sins» of the people. Any attempt, real or imagined, to depose monarchs or limit their power was considered an affront to God`s will. Crime rates tend to be low in absolute monarchies. Strict law enforcement and the threat of potentially harsh punishment, often corporal punishment, create a higher level of public safety. Justice, as defined by the monarch, is rendered quickly, making the certainty of punishment even more a deterrent to criminal behavior.

The Sultanate of Oman, the State of Qatar and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are modern countries with absolute monarchies, while the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Sweden, Belgium, Cambodia, the Netherlands and Thailand are examples of countries with constitutional monarchies. In his classic 1689 essay Two Treatises on Government, the British philosopher John Locke, proposing the principle of the social contract, calls absolute monarchy an illegitimate form of government that can lead to nothing less than «the end of civil society.» In an absolute monarchy, the monarch is the highest and most powerful authority in the land, but in a constitutional monarchy, the monarch is a purely ceremonial ruler or a de facto head of state. Monarchy is a form of government in which a single person acts as head of state. Absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy are very different forms of monarchy. Throughout imperial China, many emperors and an empress (Wu Zetian) exercised absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven. In pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by an Inca Sapa who was considered the son of Inti, the sun god and the absolute ruler of the people and the nation. Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and the Ephemeral Empire was also an absolute monarchy. In 1629, a year later, Charles dissolved parliament and did not convene it again.[11] He violated the Petition of Right by imposing many taxes on the English people. At this point, he is the monarch in an absolute monarchy, but because his popularity was so low, he would not remain in a position of power for long. An absolute monarchy is a form of government in which a person, usually a king or queen, holds absolute power, while a constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a country is ruled by a monarch whose power is limited by a constitution.

Since there are no democratic or electoral processes in an absolute monarchy, leaders can only be held accountable through civil unrest or open rebellion – both dangerous undertakings. This law therefore authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. The most important was the abolition of the Reichsrat in Denmark. The absolute monarchy lasted until 1814 in Norway and 1848 in Denmark. Many countries that had absolute monarchies, such as Jordan, Kuwait and Morocco, have moved towards a constitutional monarchy, although the monarch still retains enormous power in these cases, to the point that the influence of parliament on political life is negligible. [ref. needed] A constitutional monarchy usually has a constitutionally organized government like a parliament that shares power with the monarch. In fact, parliament or another legislative body exercises real governmental power in the country. In addition, this legislative body is headed by a Prime Minister. Therefore, the monarch acts as a symbolic leader while the prime minister and the government actually run the country.

In addition, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Sweden, Belgium, Cambodia, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Jordan and Thailand are examples of constitutional monarchies. In ancient Egypt, Pharaoh exercised absolute power over the land and was regarded by his people as a living god. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria, Babylonia, and Sumer were also absolute monarchs. In ancient and medieval India, the rulers of the Maratha, Maurya, Satavahana, Gupta, Chola, Mughal and Chalukya empires, as well as other large and small empires, were considered absolute. In Bhutan, the government moved from absolute to constitutional monarchy following parliamentary elections scheduled for the tshogdu in 2003 and the election of a national assembly in 2008.